Faculty of Engineering

General Safety Guidelines

Each government institution must contain public safety tools (fire extinguisher + first aid kit) and simple knowledge of its use, which we may not be able to read in time.
I would like to briefly summarize some of these issues
  fire extinguisher

Cylindrical body shape of the metal contains
On fire extinguishing materials by type, and takes
The time it empties its contents from 8 seconds to 15 seconds

It consists of the following elements

Play arm
- Safety nail:
He is the one who maintains
Keep the fire without pressing the handle that allows it to exit.
- Nozzle:
It is the place where the material comes out and varies according to the type and size of the extinguisher.
- Load handle.
- The air pressure gauge which helps to exit the fire extinguisher.
- Body of the extinguisher.
- Stand and valve to install the extinguisher
On the walls.
- The hose of the extinguisher.
- List of use, instructions and methods.
- Base of the extinguisher

Specifications of user

Awareness and awareness.
Physical ability.
- Know the steps to use.
- Practice the correct method of use.

Specifications of fire extinguisher

Certified by specialized references and written on capacity, type and method of use.
- Good to use.
- Fully packed.
- Weight-bearing is possible quickly and easily.
- Suitable for the type and quantity of materials exposed to combustion.

Pre-operating instructions

- Reporting to the Civil Defense.
- Ensuring that all those present are out.
- There is a safe and safe way out of danger.
- Stand at a distance of two to three meters from the site of the fire.
- Stand with wind direction in case of air currents.

How to use

Pull the safety pin located in the handle 1-
 2 - Test the extinguisher to verify its validity by pressing the knob one press and then go to the place of fire.
 Hold the extinguisher in hand and catch the end of the hose with the other hand.
 Reduce stature when approaching fire place.
5 - Guide the extruded horizontally to the flame base start the flame closest to you and move the Khartoum left and right until the flame goes out.
6 - After the completion of the process of extinguishing steps are taken back with the focus of attention to the site of the fire for fear of igniting again.
 If there is an air stream, the fire is combated with air direction.
If the fire is in a large area, the extinguishing process shall take place between two or more persons, each carrying a fire extinguisher

Short Steps

Fire chemical reaction needs three elements until they are composed of oxygen + heat + fuel = fire
• Fire triangle
Fire cannot occur if one of these elements is lacking. If we take these elements out of the fire, they will be extinguished. But how do these elements work together and produce fire?

Oxygen:
We breathe oxygen and others suffocate, but do you know that the fire also breathes oxygen like us and without it will suffocate and die

Fuel:
Now in the triangle of fire there is oxygen and heat, but we need the thing that will burn is the fuel, and fuel takes forms, including:
Steel shape like: wood, rubber, plastic
Liquid shape such as gasoline, oil and nail dye remover
Gas form: gas used in the oven

Heat:
Flammable materials and fumes when mixed with heat
And the oxygen it ignites and we mean heat flame or spark

Diffusion varies depending on the type of material burned

Water extinguisher
Foam extinguisher
Carbon dioxide extinguisher
Dry chemical extinguisher
Multipurpose dry chemical extinguisher
Dry powder extinguisher
Dry liquid extinguisher
Liquefied gas extinguisher


Water extinguisher

Used in the fight against solid-state fires
Category (a) such as:
Wood, paper, cloth, carpet

It is not used to extinguish the fires of liquid substances and fire caused by electricity because the water is a good conductor of electricity.

Fire extinguishers
foam extinguishers
 

Used in extinguishing category B fires
(Benzene, oils, kerosene) from liquid and solid materials, are used in fires of type A and are not used for fires resulting from electricity because they are superconducting, putting the person at risk

The principle of foam extinguisher

This device generates foam material in a chemical reaction inside the device and floating foam on the surface of the burning fluid and oxygen is absent

How to use a foam extinguisher

A few meters and then turned the device upside down and drew the hose on the fire open the valve and approached a fixed point on the surface next to the burning liquid
In order to flow the foam and cover the flared liquid as a whole
Note :
Use the machine until the package is finished


Fire detection devices:
Which are sensitive to smoke, heat or flame and detect the fire at the beginning to be combat the fire and evacuate the site before the spread of fire, and to determine the type of detector is correct and required must identify and know the following:

1- The type of fire that can occur (cables, inflammable materials, etc.).
2 - The geography of the place such as the height of the ceilings and whether the place is closed or open.
3 - Ambient conditions such as normal and expected temperature and humidity and whether there are strong currents in the region or a strong magnetic field people are vulnerable to vibration or shocks ...
4 - The type of activity practiced in that area and whether the materials used can affect the performance of detectors (such as substances that give fumes, gases or radiation and whether there is noise or high voices ... etc).

After knowing all of the above, you can determine the appropriate equipment for the place to be installed.

Common detection types
 Smoke detector:
It is a device that is used very high in fire detection systems because it is distinguished by the possibility of detecting most types of fires at the beginning. These devices are classified into three categories:

1 - Ion Smoke Detector: which senses visible and invisible smoke and also senses the small pendants that fly to the top because of heat, and is used in paper fires, for example because the combustion is fast.
2 - The smoke detector light: which senses the visible smoke and large pendants that fly up by heat and is used in the places of cables or materials of (PVC), but sensitive to cigarette smoke or similar
3 - smoke detector within the ducts of the air conditioning system (back ducts)

Heat Detector:
And is installed in places exposed to a factor that does not allow the use of a smoke detector such as vapors and gases, which gives false alarms if the use of smoke detectors. As well as the use of heat detectors in places where there can be a fire without ignition ignite thick smoke.
There are two types of heat detectors:
1. Constant Temperature Heat Detector: When the temperature is exceeded, it is used to determine the degree to which the device is set.
2. Heat Detector The rate of temperature change over a specified period of time.
) And the two species are often used together

Factors affecting the performance of a heat detector:
· Room temperature is high or very low
· Height of the ceiling as it is a statistic that the heat detector starts to feel heat when the flame reaches a third of the distance between the place of fire and the ceiling.

Flame Detector:
It is used in outdoor open spaces where smoke detectors or heat detectors cannot work or in places where gases, vapors or high roofed areas such as aircraft maintenance are used where smoke detectors and flame detectors are used together because the smoke detector response is reduced by the size of the space.
It is also used in places exposed to rapid and large fire such as gas stations
its varieties vary in variety of fuel potential for fire.

 Factors affecting the performance of a flame detector:

· Sun rays (some measures can be taken to avoid this)
· Lightning
· X-ray
· Powerful searchlights

Important actions to be taken when:

 Fire Accident:

 Fire accidents occur without warning if the means of detection are neglected. The owners of the house are usually asleep - in case of house accidents - if the fire is detected at its beginning, it is easy to combat it by means of fire extinguishers,
Here is the most important thing to do when a fire accident occurs:

1. When the fire is detected, remove everyone from the site and place them in a safe place
2 - If the fire at the beginning went to the site of the fire and tried to know the causes and stop development.
3 - If the site is full of smoke, you and you get out quickly without carrying anything close to the ground because the smoke is usually at the top.
4. Inform the Civil Defense of the number 998 with the description of the site accurately and calmly
5 - Do not try to enter the site of the fire to take some personal belongings may be surrounded by fire and smoke.
 

                            

Gas leak:
When a gas leak is detected, follow these guidelines:

 Ignite a fire, an electric lamp or any source of excruciating fire because it will cause a spark to cause an explosion.
2. Close the source of the leaking gas.
3. Open the windows and doors to ventilate the site and reduce the gas concentration
4. Immediately repair the leakage and replace damaged parts from the crash site

Heating devices:

With the beginning of the winter each year different heating devices are spread among people and with the use of these means there must be risks associated with it due to misuse and lack of familiarity with the safety conditions and the means used for the management and associated risks include:
First: Electric heater:
It is the most widely used and safer method if its use is accompanied by awareness of its risks.
Some of the things to consider to avoid danger:

1. Do not connect them with bad wires or unsuitable for electrical voltage.
2. Do not place electrical connections under carpets and furniture.
3. Avoid placing them in the corridors inside the house especially at night so as not to fall on the furniture near them during traffic especially children
4. Not to leave the children without supervision may harm them
5. Avoid using it as a tool for flaring, heating, incense or drying clothes
it is preferable to use a type with an electric cutter that cuts off the current when it is dropped.


Second: Gas heater:

Which is the most dangerous means of moderation and the first not to use to provide a safe alternative, and is dangerous in the gas used to ignite and cause the bottlenecks when gas leak inside the house.
 When used, the following guidelines should be followed:

1. Ensure the safety of the heater and the absence of gas leak before operation by examining the connections between the cylinder and the heater.
2. The gas cylinder should be far enough away from the heater and preferably outside the house if possible.
3. Failure to put the heater in the corridors or near the furniture may cause a fire in the house.
4. Do not leave the children alone so as not to tamper with the heater or gas cylinder
5. When a gas leak is observed, do not set on fire or electricity until the house is well ventilated.
 
Tasks and duties of the General Safety Officer:

1. The Public Safety Officer shall be responsible for implementing the policies and guidelines of the Company's management, the manufacturer ... in matters of public safety in general, including the preservation of life and property and the dissemination of the culture of public safety first.
2. He shall be a permanent member in all committees entrusted with matters of public safety such as the Public Safety Committee, the Health Control Committee, the Anti-Smoking Committee, or any other committee determined by the Department.
3. The General Safety Officer shall follow up on the recommendations of the relevant committees, which are approved by the Department of Administrative Affairs with special competence
4 - A member of the Supervisory Committee for warehouses in general and the warehouse of chemicals in particular and has the right to inspect those warehouses and make observations regarding the safety of warehouses and follow-up implementation.
5 - Follow-up safety matters regarding the location of gas and various fuels and their uses in all facilities of the establishment in coordination with the persons assigned to the daily follow-up.
6. Follow up the provision of public safety requirements in all facilities of the facility and request and maintain the necessary equipment related to public safety and fire extinguishers.
7. Follow up the implementation of compliance with the requirements of public safety in the facilities of the different establishment and have the right to personal accountability for this and to release notice of the violation and submitted to the management of the facility to take action crisis.
8. Records and reports of injuries reports shall be kept, whether human or physical, and shall report to the Department.
9 - A permanent member of the Committee for the destruction of devices and furniture for the purpose of verification of damage to furniture and hardware due to consumption or foot and not because of negligence and negligence or deliberate destruction.
10 - Preparation and coordination and conduct all necessary for training courses for employees in the areas of public safety and in coordination with specialists in various sites
11- Coordinates with the Civil Defense periodically and as he deems appropriate to identify the places of danger in the facilities of the establishment and to identify them and to prepare prior plans with them to combat and confront any emergency.
12 - Follow-up wells and water reservoirs in terms of suitability for human use.
13. Follow-up to the recommendations and decisions of the Public Safety Committee and prepare the necessary plans in coordination with the Committee.
14. Follow up on any other related tasks assigned to him

Here are some tips and guidelines for the Employers and Employers:

1. The necessity of using protective equipment and personal safety during work and not to underestimate its importance.
2. The need to provide a first aid box in the workplace to deal with minor injuries quickly.
3. Keeping chemical and flammable materials away from workers' gathering places as a real threat to factories, facilities and workers.
4. Activate the concept of occupational safety within the factories and facilities by creating a supervisor for occupational safety to follow the safety requirements that will limit many accidents.
5. Focusing on increasing the readiness of workers in factories and establishments by carrying out exercises that will provide them with sufficient expertise in how to evacuate and deal with accidents as they occur.
6. To maintain coordination between the owners of the factories or those responsible for them with the Civil Defense Authority and the Jordanian Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the concerned authorities, by holding courses for supervisors of work and employees aiming at providing a safe working environment for all.
7. Issuing brochures, posters and posters periodically and keeping abreast of the developments in the public safety environment. These publications are considered necessary and important to educate employees and raise their awareness and thus reduce injuries in the work environment.